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Commonly found as high titer HEp-2 IIFA-positive in apparently healthy individuals or in patients who do not have a systemic autoimmune rheumatic disease (SARD).
The negative association with SARD is only valid if the autoreactivity is confirmed as being directed to DFS70 (also known as LEDGF/p75) and if no other common ENA is recognized.
Both in apparently healthy individuals as well as patients who do not have a SARD the AC-2 pattern may be caused by autoantibodies to other antigens than DFS70.
Confirmatory assays for anti-DFS70 antibodies may be available only in specialty clinical laboratories.